Cuadernos de Gibraltar – Gibraltar Reports 2019-01-23T13:49:03+01:00 Inmaculada González García Open Journal Systems <p>La «cuestión de Gibraltar» se merecía una publicación periódica que, desde el mundo académico, tratara de los temas directamente o indirectamente vinculados a la controversia.&nbsp; Los <em>Cuadernos de Gibraltar / Gibraltar Reports</em> pretenden suplir esta carencia, y servir de canalización de debates e ideas con rigor y fundamento académico, así como de soporte y referencia de documentación; documentación que suele perderse o desaparecer rápidamente (o inopinadamente) en la selva de la Red en Internet, y en la simplificación que en ocasiones hacen los medios de comunicación cuando tratan alguna de las múltiples aristas del problema gibraltareño.</p> Presentación 2018-09-17T05:03:48+02:00 Inmaculada González García Alejandro del Valle Gálvez Foreword 2018-09-17T05:03:48+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BREXIT NEGOTIATIONS AND GIBRALTAR: TIME FOR A ‘MODUS VIVENDI’? 2018-09-17T05:03:48+02:00 Alejandro del Valle Gálvez <p>The unexpected outcome of the United Kingdom’s ‘Brexit’ referendum on leaving the European Union may have historic and even tragic consequences for Gibraltar, since it necessarily entails both a reconsideration of the status of Gibraltar and changes in Spain’s perspective on a solution to the dispute. Following Brexit, negotiations on the UK’s withdrawal from the EU will not only pave the way for a new European and international legal framework, but will also create an opportunity for Spain to redefine its relationship with Gibraltar, offering the possibility of new approaches to resolve this historic dispute.</p>Indeed, the obligation to negotiate a UK withdrawal from the EU will compel Gibraltar to redefine its European legal status, regardless of whether it remains within or outside EU law. This places Gibraltar in the very uncomfortable position of being forced to seek to negotiate a new arrangement within the EU legal framework; unquestionably the framework of greatest practical daily application, together with two other international legal frameworks, namely the Treaty of Utrecht and the UN ’doctrine’ about the decolonization of Gibraltar. 2018-09-17T05:03:48+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gibraltar en la política exterior española 2018-09-17T05:03:48+02:00 Antonio Remiro Brotóns <p>Transcripción de la Conferencia por el Prof. Dr. D. Antonio Remiro Brotóns el 28 de julio de 2016 en la University of Gibraltar, en el marco de los XXXVI Cursos de la Universidad de Cádiz en San Roque, en el Seminario «Gibraltar, el "Brexit" y las relaciones transfronterizas – Nuevos planteamientos y perspectivas de cambio».</p> 2018-09-17T05:03:48+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Jews of Gibraltar before the Treaty of Utrecht and the Developement of the Jewish Community since 2018-09-17T05:03:48+02:00 Tito Benady <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Abstract:</strong> the British occupation of Gibraltar in 1704 brought in Jewish merchants from Tetuan to supply the fresh food required by the garrison. Although expelled under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, bad relations with Spain led to them being readmitted to bring in much-needed supplies from Morocco. They formed a large minority in the new civilian population established in Gibraltar in the 18th century and were very influential in the development of Gibraltarian society. Today the Jewish community of Gibraltar has chosen not to participate fully in Gibraltarian society in order to protect the purity of its religious practises.</p><p> </p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gibraltar, Jews, Morocco, Treaty of Utrecht, Sephardi, mixed marriages, civil society, synagogues.</p><p> </p><p>---------------------------------------------------</p><p> </p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Resumen:</strong> La ocupación de Gibraltar por los ingleses en 1704 trajo comerciantes judíos marroquíes de Tetuán a Gibraltar para suministrar los alimentos frescos que la plaza necesitaba. En el siglo XVIII formaban una minoría importante de la población civil e influenciaron el desarrollo de la nueva sociedad civil gibraltareña. Hoy, la comunidad judía de Gibraltar ha optado no participar en pleno en la sociedad gibraltareña para proteger la integridad de sus prácticas religiosas.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Palabras clave:</strong> Gibraltar, judíos, Marruecos, Tratado de Utrecht, Sefardí, casamientos mixtos, sociedad civil, <em>esnoga </em>(denominación en <em>haketía</em>, el ladino de los judíos marroquíes, de sinagoga).</p> 2018-09-17T05:03:48+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gibraltar, the Brexit, the Symbolic Sovereignty, and the Dispute. A Principality in the Straits? 2018-09-17T05:03:49+02:00 Alejandro del VALLE GÁLVEZ <p><strong>ABSTRACT.</strong> The outcome of the United Kingdom’s ‘Brexit’ referendum on leaving the European Union necessarily entails both a reconsideration of the status of Gibraltar and changes in Spain’s perspective on a solution to the dispute. Following Brexit, negotiations on the UK’s withdrawal from the EU will not only pave the way for a new European and international legal framework, but will also create a historic opportunity for Spain to redefine its relationship with Gibraltar, offering the possibility of new approaches to resolve this historical dispute.</p><p>After the crisis of 2013, negotiations reached a stalemate, but the unexpected outcome of the Brexit referendum could have tragic consequences for Gibraltar because the obligation to negotiate the UK’s withdrawal from the EU will likewise oblige Gibraltar to redefine its legal status with the EU, which constitutes the legal framework of greatest practical daily application, together with two other international legal frameworks, namely the Treaty of Utrecht and the UN declaration on decolonisation. The European framework will continue to apply for at least the two years during which withdrawal negotiations are held, providing sufficient legal certainty concerning applicable law in the coming years. However, the effects of uncertainty could have a very negative impact on the economy of Gibraltar, whose population adopted a clear stance in favour of ‘Bremain’ in the referendum. Furthermore, a possible return to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht has raised fears of the very probable legality of closing the border, at Spain’s instigation, if EU law ceases to be applicable in the future.</p><p>The unavoidable renegotiation of the status of Gibraltar within the EU will inevitably involve Spain, which in 1986 did not question the status endowed in 1972. In the present context, however, Spain could leverage the requirement for unanimity at several crucial moments during the process of negotiating British withdrawal as regulated by Art. 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU); thus, various possible future scenarios for Gibraltar, such as the Norwegian or Swiss models or the antecedent of Greenland, will depend on Spain’s consent. In addition, solutions that seek to maintain application of the European Single Market to Gibraltar would in practice be unworkable in the international arena, because Gibraltar is not part of the British State and its only status under international law is that of a territory awaiting decolonisation in a process supervised by the United Nations.</p><p>At the same time, Brexit has opened a window of opportunity for resolving this historical dispute, which encompasses both peaceful coexistence between Spain and the small neighbouring community of Gibraltar just over the border, and the question of sovereignty that underlies the dispute with the United Kingdom. The acting Spanish Government took two important decisions in 2016: it announced the need to negotiate the status of Gibraltar outside the framework of TEU Art. 50, and it proposed joint sovereignty. This historic moment requires strategic decisions supported by broad domestic consensus in Spain, since it is a key issue strongly symbolic of Spanish foreign policy which may have important domestic and international consequences. </p><p>Spain now has the opportunity to adopt a strategic approach that incorporates a new narrative and focus for Gibraltar, and which addresses the pending issue of regulating cross-border relations and coexistence with the people of Gibraltar. The unanimous support given in 2016 by all political parties for a European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) with Gibraltar within the EU framework demonstrates that significant changes are possible for cross-border coexistence. Gibraltar and Campo could even adopt a common approach to Brexit and its consequences for Gibraltar and the region, enforcing this in their respective States and the EU as negotiations begin.</p><p>The format and content of the joint sovereignty proposal announced by Spain is the same as that of others presented or negotiated previously. But the 2016 Spanish proposal of Joint Sovereignty has structural deficiencies, which make it unworkable in practice. Several objective questions can be raised: UK and Gibraltar have yet rejected this proposal; it was made unilaterally by the conservative Government of M. Rajoy, without looking for previous supporting consensus inside Spain; and the most practical problem which is that the proposal inextricably links cross-border cooperation with the resolution of the sovereignty dispute, this creates an impasse given that both the UK and Gibraltar have already rejected joint sovereignty.</p><p>Instead of Joint Sovereignty negotiations as the answer for the Gibraltar question, the article advocate a twofold approach in the current historical negotiating situation for the UK's departure from the EU: a provisional <em>Modus Vivendi</em> for cross-border coexistence, and in parallel an agreement to seek a new international and European model for Gibraltar, trying to put an end to historical controversy.</p><p>A provisional<em> Modus Vivendi</em> for the cross-border coexistence with Gibraltar could be an interim agreement to regulate the aspects that most urgently need the daily normalization. Especially the border crossing by the Border/Fence, but also others such as the issues of transparency and economic-financial collaboration, navigation and jurisdiction over Bay waters, or the use of the airport.</p><p>This historic moment could be conducive to moving forwards in new and imaginative ways, with initiatives such as that of ‘symbolic sovereignty’ formula via the proposed<em> Principality of Gibraltar </em>or <em>City of the British and Spanish Crowns</em> linked to the EU, which offers sufficient constitutional and international margins for consideration. This proposal of the Two Crowns Principality, linked to the EU, would restore Gibraltar to the Spanish nation and sovereignty, in addition to incorporating it into the EU as part of the Kingdom of Spain, ensuring the maintenance of its current organisation and powers and entailing agreements on Gibraltar’s economic and financial regime and British retention of its military bases.</p> 2018-09-17T05:03:49+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gibraltar, trabajadores fronterizos y controles de frontera 2018-09-17T05:03:49+02:00 Miguel Acosta Sánchez <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Resumen:</strong> El aumento del control en frontera por parte de las autoridades españolas en la Verja de Gibraltar, ha sacado a la luz la situación jurídica del cruce de trabajadores fronterizos españoles que desempeñan una actividad profesional en Gibraltar. Además, la normativa europea recoge un régimen particular que España sistemáticamente ha estado incumpliendo.</p><p><strong>Palabras clave:</strong> Gibraltar, Unión Europea, control de frontera, trabajadores fronterizos.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><br /></strong></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Abstract:</strong> The increased border control by Spanish authorities in the Gibraltar Fence, has brought to light the legal situation of border crossing of Spanish frontier workers who perform a professional activity in Gibraltar. In this context, european legislation includes a special regime for them that Spain has consistently been failing.</p><p><strong>Palabras clave:</strong> Gibraltar, European Union, Border controls, frontier workers.</p> 2018-09-17T05:03:49+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## El Patrimonio Cultural Subacuático y el Estrecho de Gibraltar. El caso de la Bahía de Algeciras/Gibraltar 2018-09-17T05:03:49+02:00 Jesús Verdú Baeza <p>I. INTRODUCCIÓN – II. BREVE PERSPECTIVA DEL MARCO INTERNACIONAL DE PROTECCIÓN DEL PATRIMONIO CULTURAL SUBACUÁTICO. – III LA BAHÍA DE ALGECIRAS/GIBRALTAR Y SU SINGULARIDAD RESPECTO AL PCS 1. – IV. REFLEXIONES FINALES</p> 2018-09-17T05:03:49+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Los actores que intervienen en la estrategia del Estrecho de Gibraltar 2019-01-23T13:49:03+01:00 Luis Romero Bartumeus <p>I.- INTRODUCCIÓN – II. ESPAÑA – III.-MARRUECOS/ARGELIA – IV. GIBRALTAR (REINO UNIDO) – VI. LA ALIANZA ATLÁNTICA (OTAN) – VII. CONCLUSIONES.</p> 2018-09-17T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Los Acuerdos de Intercambio de Información Fiscal de Gibraltar 2018-09-17T05:03:49+02:00 Teresa Pontón Aricha <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Resumen:</strong> en este trabajo se analizarán los Acuerdos de Intercambio de Información fiscal firmados por Gibraltar; repasando el concepto de Acuerdo en sí mismo; el modelo que este territorio ha suscrito; y los efectos que de ello se derivan; ya que la firma de los mismos supone un cambio en la estrategia fiscal del Peñón debido a la presión de los distintos operadores internacionales que podrían llegar a tomar «medidas sancionatorias» contra los antiguamente denominados «paraísos fiscales».</p><p><strong>Palabras clave:</strong> Intercambio Internacional de Información Tributaria, OCDE, Acuerdos de Intercambio de Información Fiscal, Gibraltar.</p><p> </p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Abstract:</strong> This paper attempts to analyze the Tax Information Exchange Agreements signed by Gibraltar; reviewing the concept of TEIA itself; the model signed by this territory; and the resulting effects; since this position implies a change in the fiscal strategy of the Rock because of the pressure of the different international operators that could get to take “sanctions measures” against the formerly denominated “tax havens”.</p><p><strong>Palabras clave:</strong> International Exchange of Tax Information, OECD, Tax Information Exchange Agreements.</p> 2018-09-17T05:03:49+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Instrumentos legales para la Cooperación Transfronteriza. Las Agrupaciones Europeas de Cooperación Territorial 2018-09-17T05:03:49+02:00 Martín Guillermo Ramírez Sin resumen 2018-09-17T05:03:49+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Futuros para Gibraltar y el Campo tras el Brexit 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 Fabian Picardo 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## No hay fórmula más eficaz o válida que el Diálogo Tripartito 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 Peter Caruana 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## El Grupo Transfronterizo. Historia, motivación, objetivos 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 Juan Carmona de Cózar 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gibraltar-Campo de Gibraltar, evolución y perspectivas de futuro para la convivencia transfronteriza 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 Peter Montegriffo 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inmigración en Gibraltar procedente de las otras colonias británicas del Mediterráneo: Menorca en el siglo XVIII y Malta en el siglo XIX 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 Tito Benady 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## León Romero, Gracia: Campo de Gibraltar, una imagen con alto valor estratégico. Análisis de la imagen e identidad en la frontera sur de Europa , Saarbrücken, Publicia, 2014, 519 pp. 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 Juan Domingo Torrejón Rodríguez 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Remacha Tejada, José Ramón: Gibraltar y sus límies, Gijón, Trea, 2015. 384 pp 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 José Antonio Doral García de Pazos 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Documentación 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 Lorena Calvo Mariscal <strong>Naciones Unidas</strong><br /><ul><li>DOCUMENTO 1. Decisión de la Asamblea General sobre la cuestión de Gibraltar , 6 de noviembre de 2015.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 2. Decision of the General Assembly, Question of Gibraltar , 06 November 2015.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 3. Decisión de la Asamblea General sobre la cuestión de Gibraltar, 7 de noviembre de 2016.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 4. Decision of the General Assembly, Question of Gibraltar , 07 November 2016.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 5. Intervención del Embajador Representante Permanente de España ante las NNUU, en la 71 Sesión de la Asamblea General. IV Comisión (Nueva York, 4 de octubre de 2016).</li><li>DOCUMENTO 6. Nota de prensa 139: España interviene en el Comité de Descolonización de Naciones Unidas: Gibraltar (14 de junio de 2016).</li><li>DOCUMENTO 7. Asamblea General, Gibraltar -Documento de trabajo preparado por la Secretaria- Comité Especial Encargado de Examinar la Situación con respecto a la Aplicación de la Declaración sobre la Concesión de la Independencia a los Países y Pueblos Coloniales - Doc A/AC.109/2016/8, de 29 de febrero de 2016.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 8. General Assembly. Working Paper prepared by the Secretariat - Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples - Doc A/AC.109/2016/8, 29 February 2016.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 9. Asamblea General, Gibraltar -Documento de trabajo preparado por la Secretaria- Comité Especial Encargado de Examinar la Situación con respecto a la Aplicación de la Declaración sobre la Concesión de la Independencia a los Países y PueblosColoniales - Doc A/AC.109/2017/8, de 7 de marzo de 2017.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 10. General Assembly. Working Paper prepared by the Secretariat - Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples - Doc A/AC.109/2017/8, 7 March 2017.</li></ul><strong>Reino Unido y Gibraltar</strong><br /><ul><li>DOCUMENTO 11. HOUSE OF LORDS (1 marzo 2017)- House of Lords, European Union Committee, Brexit : Gibraltar, 21.02.2017, 13th Report of Session 2016-17, HL Paper 116.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 12. Written evidence from HM Government of Gibraltar: The potential effects on Gibraltar should the UK leave the EU (EUM 0029) Enero 2016.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 13. Written evidence from HM Government of Gibraltar (EUM0034). Submission to the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Commons on the position of Gibraltar in the European Union and the challenges posed were that position to change after the Referendum of 23 June on whether the UK and Gibraltar should remain in the EU or should leave.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 14. Discurso del Ministro Principal en la Cuarta Comisión de la Asamblea General de las NNUU (4 octubre 2016).</li><li>España</li><li>DOCUMENTO 15. Comunicado 129, 11 mayo 2016: Visita del Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores británico a Gibraltar.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 16. Nota de prensa 175, 28 julio 2016: Gibraltar. Submarino HMS Ambush.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 17. Nota de prensa 160, 11 julio 2016: Convocatoria del embajador de Reino Unido.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 18. Nota de prensa 161, 12 julio 2016: Reunión Interministerial sobre Gibraltar.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 19. Nota de prensa 169, 21 julio 2016: España solicita explicaciones al Reino Unido sobre situación del submarino británico HMS Ambush.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 20. Carta de 28 de Septiembre de 2016 del Ministro en funciones de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperacion, J. J. Garcia-Margallo y Marfil, a los Ministros de Asuntos Exteriores de los Estados Miembros de la UE, y Presidentes del Consejo Europeo,</li><li>Comisión Europea y Parlamento Europeo.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 21. Mancomunidad de Municipios del Campo de Gibraltar – El Campo de Gibraltar ante el Brexit: efectos y medidas. 18 octubre 2016.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 22. CONGRESO Boletín Oficial de las Cortes Generales, 25 octubre 2016: Proposición no de Ley 161/000634.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 23. CONGRESO Boletín Oficial de las Cortes Generales, 16 de noviembre 2016: Proposición no de Ley sobre Gibraltar, presentada por el Grupo Parlamentario Socialista 161/000634. Aprobación con modificaciones así como enmiendas formuladas.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 24. CONGRESO - Respuesta escrita del Gobierno a la pregunta 184/4127 de 21.11.2016 planteada por F. Maura Barandiarán, del Grupo Ciudadanos, en el BOCG núm. 96 de 22.04.2017, número registro 15441.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 25. CONGRESO – Boletín Oficial de las Cortes Generales, 16 noviembre 2016: Proposición no de Ley presentada por el Grupo Parlamentario Socialista, relativa a la Aduana Comercial de La Linea de la Concepción y el paso fronterizo no comercial con Gibraltar, 161/001593.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 26. Resolución de 25 de julio de 2014, del Departamento de Aduanas e Impuestos Especiales de la Agencia Estatal de Administración Tributaria, por la que se regula el supuesto especial de uso del circuito rojo en el tráfico de viajeros en la Administración de Aduanas e Impuestos Especiales de la Línea de la Concepción para los trabajadores fronterizos, B.O.E., nº 183, de 29.07.2014.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 27. CUMBRE IBEROAMERICANA Comunicado especial sobre la cuestión de Gibraltar (propuesta de España). XXV Cumbre Iberoamericana, 28 y 29 octubre 2016.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 28. PARLAMENTO DE ANDALUCIA Proposición no de Ley, aprobada en Pleno el 30 de abril de 2014, relativa a las medidas de reactivación económica para la comarca del Campo de Gibraltar y la eliminación del actual sistema de controles transfronterizo (9-14/PNLP-000033), Boletín Oficial del Parlamento de Andalucía, nº 453, de 15.05.2014.</li><li>DOCUMENTO 29. PARLAMENTO DE ANDALUCÍA. Proposición No de Ley sobre la Asociación Europea de Cooperación Transfronteriza. BOPA 18.11.2016.</li></ul><p><strong>Unión Europea</strong></p><ul><li>DOCUMENTO 30. Declaración del Consejo Europeo (art. 50) sobre la notificación del Reino Unido 29.3.2017.DOCUMENTO 31. Carta de la Primera Ministra Theresa May, art. 50 (español e inglés).</li><li>DOCUMENTO 32. Orientaciones Consejo Europeo Especial 29 04 2017.</li></ul> 2018-09-17T05:03:50+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##