The Different Initiatives on Due Diligence for Responsible Mineral Supply Chains from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas: Are there More Effective Alternatives?

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Carmen Martínez San Millán

Resumen

LAS DIFERENTES INICIATIVAS SOBRE DILIGENCIA DEBIDA EN LA CADENA DE SUMINISTRO DE MINERALES DE ZONAS DE CONFLICTO Y DE ALTO RIESGO: ¿EXISTEN OTRAS ALTERNATIVAS MÁS EFICACES?
Los minerales de zonas de conflicto y de alto riesgo como el coltán, presente en todos los aparatos tecnológicos que utilizamos de manera diaria, contribuyen a la exacerbación y al recrudecimiento de los conflictos, así como a la prolongación de situaciones de violación de derechos humanos en numerosas regiones del mundo y, sobre todo, en África. Para acabar con esta lacra, numerosos Estados y organizaciones internacionales, como Estados Unidos, la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo en Europa o la Unión Europea, han adoptado diferentes iniciativas, centradas todas ellas en la diligencia debida que deben llevar a cabo los agentes que participan en la cadena de suministro de toda esta serie de minerales de conflicto. No obstante, el hecho de que algunas de estas iniciativas ni siquiera se encuentren en vigor, no ha impedido la posibilidad de identificar límites que obstruyen el logro de su principal objetivo: romper el nexo entre la explotación ilegal de recursos naturales, el comercio ilícito de estos recursos, y la perpetuación de conflictos armados. De esta manera, cabe preguntarse si existen alternativas viables más efectivas a las iniciativas existentes, como podría serlo un sistema de certificación análogo al del Proceso Kimberley de Certificación de Diamantes.

Palabras clave
Diligencia debida, minerales de conflicto, coltán, Resolución 1952, Dodd-Frank Act, Guía de la OCDE, Reglamento (UE) 2017/821, Proceso Kimberley, conflictos armados, comercio internacional,

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Martínez San Millán, C. (2021). The Different Initiatives on Due Diligence for Responsible Mineral Supply Chains from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas: Are there More Effective Alternatives?. PEACE & SECURITY-PAIX ET SÉCURITÉ INTERNATIONALES (EuroMediterranean Journal of International Law and International Relations), (09). Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.uca.es/index.php/paetsei/article/view/8304
 
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