Pragmalingüística, núm. 23

Los sistemas combinatorios animales no tienen dualidad: Hockett tenía razón

Victor Manuel Longa Martínez

Resumen


La dualidad o doble articulación es una propiedad fundamental del lenguaje. Hace medio siglo, Charles Hockett comparó la comunicación animal y el lenguaje con su conocido sistema de rasgos de diseño, y sostuvo que la dualidad era uno de los pocos rasgos ausentes en la comunicación animal. Desde entonces, numerosos autores, en especial lingüistas, han atribuido esa propiedad a algunos sistemas comunicativos animales que muestran una naturaleza combinatoria, en los cuales las señales se forman mediante la unión de unidades menores. Este artículo analiza críticamente esas propuestas; en concreto, defiende que la naturaleza jerárquico-combinatoria de esos sistemas es muy diferente a la del lenguaje, por lo que carecen de dualidad. Por ello, el trabajo reivindica la posición de Hockett, sosteniendo que estaba plenamente acertado cuando defendía que la dualidad es un rasgo inexistente en la comunicación animal.

Palabras clave


dualidad o doble articulación; pleremas y cenemas; comunicación animal; sistema jerárquico-combinatorio; referencialidad

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