Preferencia por contenidos científicos de física o de biología en Educación Primaria: un análisis clúster

Main Article Content

Radu Bogdan Toma
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4846-7323
Jesús Ángel Meneses Villagrá
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4839-0418

Resumen

Resumen: Las estadísticas de matriculación en carreras de ciencia, tecnología, ingeniería y matemática (STEM) evidencian una gran infrarrepresentación de las mujeres en la mayoría de estas disciplinas, especialmente en física e ingeniería. En este estudio se analiza el interés de niñas y niños de Educación Primaria (n = 733) por el contenido de disciplinas científicas de física y de biología utilizando un método de análisis cuantitativo basado en técnicas de agrupamiento por conglomerados K-Medias, analizándose las diferencias en las actitudes de los estudiantes hacia la ciencia escolar en función de su interés por estas disciplinas científicas. Los resultados revelan la existencia de un perfil actitudinal sesgado sexualmente, caracterizado por un alto interés por contenidos propios de ciencias biológicas y un bajo interés por el aprendizaje de la física por parte de las niñas, y resultados opuestos en el caso de los niños. Además, en comparación con los niños, las niñas han mostrado menos interés por contenidos de física, han sido mayoría en los perfiles actitudinales caracterizados por un bajo interés general por contenidos científicos y han sido minoría en los perfiles caracterizados por un alto interés por ambas disciplinas. Estos resultados parecen mostrar que el interés por disciplinas científicas de física o de biología empieza a forjarse desde niveles elementales del sistema educativo, hecho que podría dar lugar a la posterior segregación de género en las disciplinas STEM. Se discuten las implicaciones educativas y de investigación de estos resultados.


Palabras clave: actitudes hacia la ciencia, K-medias, conglomerados, ciencias biológicas, ciencias físicas


Preference for physics or biology scientific content in Elementary Education: a cluster analysis


Abstract: Statistics on enrolment in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) show a large under-representation of women in most of these disciplines. This study analyses the preferences of elementary education girls and boys (n = 733) for the content of physics and biology using a quantitative analysis method based on clustering techniques (K-Means) and by analyzing the differences in their attitudes toward school science according to their preferences. The results reveal the existence of a sexually biased attitudinal profile, characterized by a high preference for the content of the biological sciences and a low preference for learning physics among girls, and opposite results in the case of boys. In addition, in comparison with boys, girls showed less interest in physics science content than boys, were majority in the attitudinal profiles characterized by a low overall interest in science content and minority in the profiles characterized by a high interest in both disciplines. These results seem to show that the preference for scientific disciplines in physics or biology are beginning to form from elementary levels of the educational system, which could lead to the subsequent gender segregation existing in STEM disciplines. The educational and research implications of these findings are discussed.


Keywords: attitudes towards science, K-mean, cluster analysis, biology, physics

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Toma, R., & Meneses Villagrá, J. (2018). Preferencia por contenidos científicos de física o de biología en Educación Primaria: un análisis clúster. Revista Eureka Sobre Enseñanza Y Divulgación De Las Ciencias, 1(1), 1104. https://doi.org/10.25267/Rev_Eureka_ensen_divulg_cienc.2019.v16.i1.1104
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Fundamentos y líneas de trabajo

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